IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT OF DROUGHT TOLERANT RICE THROUGH POLYETYLENE GLYCOL (PEG) USING EMBRYOGENIC CALLI
Selection for drought resistance is gaining more importance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) but selection under natural field conditions is tiresome due to low heritability and time required. Selection in tissue culture is thought to be the preferred way to accelerate selection efficiency. Several parameters such as seed germination percentage, callus induction, shoot regeneration and root induction was studied under drought stress imposed by polyetylene glycol (PEG 6000). Rice varieties Binadhan-19 and Binadhan-17 showed significant callus induction. Callus induction was significantly higher under dark condition (85.2%) than light condition (75.83%). After callus induction, drought stress was created by increased levels of PEG (0%, 5%, 8% and 10%). The highest and the lowest percentage of plant regeneration were found in both varieties at 0% and 10% PEG. The variety Binadhan-19 performed best at 5.0% PEG for shoot regeneration (64%) and root induction (60%) followed by 8% and 10% PEG. At 8% PEG level, shoot regeneration was 56% in Binadhan-19 and 40% in Binadhan-17 and root induction was 40% in Binadhan-19 and 30% in Binadhan-17. At 10% PEG level, shoot regeneration was 40% in Binadhan-19 and 32% in Binadhan-17 and root induction was 30% in Binadhan-19 and 20% in Binadhan-17. The variety Binadhan-19 performed better against drought stress than Binadhan-17. These results emphasize that, selection of drought tolerant rice plants in vitro by creating artificial water stress using PEG in culture media is feasible. The information gained from the study could be helpful in developing rice varieties in vitro for drought tolerance.
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