EVALUATION OF IRON AND ZINC ENRICHED RICE (Oryza sativa L.) GENOTYPES IN DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF BANGLADESH
Malnutrition among women and children are extremely prevalent in Bangladesh. Bangladeshi children become stunted and underweight due to micronutrients deficiencies particularly iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Anemia is also highly prevalent among children and women in the country due to Fe deficiency. Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human Fe and Zn deficiencies in Bangladesh where rice is the staple food. With this view, four advanced brown rice genotypes: IZSD-10, IZSD-26, IZSD-44 and IZSD-45 along with Binadhan-20 as check variety were analyzed for grain Fe and Zn concentration using energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometer (ED-XRF). Advanced yield trial was conducted in three different locations of Bangladesh during Aman season of 2020 in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in each location. The Fe concentration varied from 9 to 15 mg kg-1 and 1 to 4 mg kg-1 whereas Zn concentration ranged from 45 to 59 mg kg-1 and 29 to 40 mg kg-1 in unpolished and polished rice, respectively. Almost higher Fe loss (~60 to 94 %) was observed compared to Zn (~18 to 42%) at 10% polishing throughout the grain shape that was responsible due to loss of embryo, pericarp and aleurone layer. Grain yield of IZSD-26 was considerably higher (5.37 t ha-1) but not significantly different at mean over locations. The genotype IZSD-26 and IZSD-10 were matured (116 and 114 days) earlier than the check variety (129 days with yield 5.36 t ha-1). Considering earliness, Fe and Zn content and higher yield, the genotypes IZSD-26 and IZSD-10 might be recommended for further regional yield trial to develop Fe and Zn enriched varieties. Moreover, other genotypes IZSD-44 and IZSD-45 with high Zn concentration were identified, which have the potential to be used in rice improvement for bio fortification.
Anuradha, K., Agarwal, S., Batchu, A. K., Babu, A. P., Swamy, B.P.M., Longvah, T. and Sarla, N. 2012. Evaluating rice germplasm for iron and zinc concentration in brown rice and seed dimensions. J. Phytol. 4(1):19-25.
Banerjee, S., Sharma, D.J., Verulkar, S.B. and Chandel, G. 2010. Use of in silico and semiquantitative RT-PCR approaches to develop nutrient rich rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian J. Biotechnol. 9: 203-212.
BBS 2019. Bangladesh Statistics. Statistics and Informatics Division (SID), Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
Cakmak, I. and Kutman, U.B. 2018. Agronomic biofortification of cereals with zinc: a review. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 69(1): 172-180.
Chandu, G., Balakrishnan, D., Mangrauthia, S.K. and Neelamraju, S. 2020. Characterization of rice genotypes for grain Fe, Zn using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer (ED-XRF). J. Rice Res. 13(1): 9-17.
Díaz-Benito, P., Banakar, R., Rodríguez-Menéndez, S., Capell, T., Pereiro, R., Christou, P., Abadía, J., Fernández, B. and Álvarez-Fernández, A. 2018. Iron and zinc in the embryo and endosperm of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds in contrasting 2′-deoxymugineic acid/nicotianamine scenarios. Front. Plant Sci. 9: 1-17.
FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO 2021. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021. Transforming food systems for food security, improved nutrition and affordable healthy diets for all. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Gregorio, G.B. 2002. Progress in breeding for trace minerals in staple crops. JN. 132(3): 500S-502S.
Hasanzadeh, M. and Hazrati, N. 2020. Improvement of rice quality via biofortification of micronutrients. In: Roychoudhury A. (Editor) Rice Research for Quality Improvement: Genomics and Genetic Engineering. Springer, Singapore. pp. 715-748.
Inabangan-Asilo, M.A., Swamy, B.P.M., Amparado, A.F., Descalsota-Empleo, G.I.L., Arocena, E.C. and Reinke, R. 2019. Stability and G×E analysis of zinc-biofortified rice genotypes evaluated in diverse environments. Euphytica. 215(3): 1-17.
Kader, M.A., Biswas, P.S., Aditya, T.L., Anisuzzaman, M., Hore, T.K. and Haq, M.E. 2020. Zinc enriched high yielding rice variety BRRI dhan84 for dry season rice growing areas of Bangladesh. Asian Plant Res. J. 6(1): 6-13.
Kawakami, Y. and Bhullar, N.K. 2018. Molecular processes in iron and zinc homeostasis and their modulation for biofortification in rice. J. Integr. Plant Boil. 60 (12): 1181-1198.
Majumder, S., Datta, K. and Datta, S.K. 2019. Rice biofortification: high Iron, Zinc, and vitamin-A to fight against “hidden hunger”. Agron. 9(12): 1-22.
Mamin, M.S.I., Biswash, M.R., Barua, R., Zahan, A., Naher, S., Mukul, M.H.R., Karmakar, B., Islam, M.R. and Islam, M.A. 2015. Performance of some zinc enriched rice genotypes in different agro-ecological conditions of Bangladesh. Sci. Agri. 11(1): 15-19.
Matres, J.M., Arcillas, E., Cueto-Reaño, M.F., Sallan-Gonzales, R., Trijatmiko, K.R. and Slamet-Loedin, I. 2021 Biofortification of rice grains for increased iron content. In: Ali, J. and Wani, S.H. (Editors) Rice Improvement. Springer, Cham. pp. 471-486.
Sarker, U. 2002. Stability for grain yield under different planting times in rice. Bangladesh J. Agric. Res. 27: 425-430.
Shelley, I.J., Takahashi-Nosaka, M., Kano-Nakata, M., Haque, M.S. and Inukai, Y. 2016. Rice cultivation in Bangladesh: present scenario, problems and prospects. JICAD. 14: 20-29.
Trijatmiko, K.R., Dueñas, C., Tsakirpaloglou, N., Torrizo, L., Arines, F.M., Adeva, C., Balindong, J., Oliva, N., Sapasap, M.V., Borrero, J., Rey, J., Francisco, P., Nelson, A., Nakanishi, H., Lombi, E., Tako, E., Glahn, R.P., Stangoulis, J., Chadha-Mohanty, P., Johnson, A.A.T., Tohme, J., Barry, G. and Slamet-Loedin, I.H. 2016. Biofortifiedindica rice attains iron and zinc nutrition dietary targets in the field. Sci. Rep. 6(1): 1-13.